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Women's Gynaecological Cancers
Ovarian Cancer
Women with ovarian cancer often have no symptoms until the cancer has progressed to the late stages. Sometimes, there may be non- specific symptoms like abdominal bloating, loss of appetite and loss of weight.
  • Diagnosis
    A suspicion of ovarian cancer may be made following a physical examination, an ultrasound scan or a CT scan, and a blood test for ovarian tumour markers.
    The diagnosis must then be confirmed with surgery to inspect the abdominal cavity and to take biopsies.
  • Treatment
    The treatment of ovarian cancer depends on the type and stage of cancer. Treatment usually involves a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. For women who are keen to preserve their fertility, the possibility of fertility- preserving options should be discussed.
Uterine Cancer
Uterine cancer is a type of cancer that affects the uterus, most commonly in the endometrium or inner lining of the uterus.
  • Diagnosis
    Uterine cancer usually presents with irregular menstruation or abnormal vaginal bleeding that occurs after menopause.
    To confirm the presence or absence of cancer, an endometrial biopsy is necessary e.g. through a dilation and curettage (D&C). During a D&C, the uterus is scraped with an instrument called a curette and the tissue obtained is sent for laboratory testing.
  • Treatment
    Treatment options depend on the type and stage of uterine cancer. For women with early stage endometrial cancer who are keen to preserve their fertility, the use of hormone therapy may sometimes be considered. However, standard treatment largely revolves around surgery to remove the uterus, chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
Cervical Cancer
Cervical cancer refers to cancer of the cervix, also known as the neck of the womb.
  • Diagnosis
    Women with cervical cancer may present with symptoms such as irregular menstrual bleeding, bleeding after sexual intercourse or a vaginal discharge. On examination, there may be an abnormal - looking cervix or an abnormal PAP smear. The diagnosis is usually confirmed on colposcopy and biopsy of abnormal- looking areas of the cervix.
  • Treatment
    The management of cervical cancer depends on the type and stage of the disease. In very early stages, surgery alone may be possible. However, if the disease is found to be at the advanced stage, then surgery is usually not an option and treatment would often involve both radiotherapy and chemotherapy.